Histoire du film a star is born

“When tous the civilization is a hopeless jumble,And thé raindrops tumble tous around,Heaven opens up a magic lane.When all the clouds darken up thé skyway,There"s a rainbow highway à be found…”

This prelude to Harold Arlen et Yip Harburg’s ageless ballad, “Over thé Rainbow,” unused in “The Wizard de Oz,” is sung par Ally (Stefani yone Angelina Germanotta, a.k.a. Lady Gaga) near auto beginning of Bradley Cooper’s “A star Is Born.” ont she walks down année alley, encore dressed in sa waitress uniform, the film’s location materializes in gros red letters, harkening ago to auto ruby hue ns the words as soon as they attach George Cukor’s 1954 déditions of auto film, certification Dorothy herself, Judy Garland. Cooper’s snapshot is, in fact, auto fifth screen version of auto story, and just might rank second seulement un to auto indelible Garland vehicle, many thanks in non small aller to how it both channels et reinvents assorted elements ns Cukor’s masterwork. 

Garland et Gaga to be both 32 when their particular “Star Is Born” film received an October relax in theaters, et the actresses each sought to have the coveted titular role launch—or in Garland’s case, relaunch—their career ont a principale movie star. Yet what now stands ont the crowning achievement du Garland’s legacy ironically marked auto end of her career as a marquee surname in Hollywood. The pangs of longing the characterize her two many memorable number in cinema, “Over thé Rainbow” and “The masculin That got Away,” mirror the loss that she endured throughout sa life. Throughout a Q&A at thé 1967 Chicago International cinématique Festival, attended de Roger Ebert, Cukor noted, “People that aren"t complicated in real sapin come through ont pretty bland nous the screen. Most an excellent performers are not really happy et well adjusted. Maybe that"s auto price castle pay pour being originals.”

According to auto illuminating livre released critical fall, A étoiles Is Born: Judy Garland et the cinématique that obtained Away, coauthored de Garland’s daughter, Lorna Luft, together with Jeffrey Vance, the actrice connected deeply à the script because of elle own unresolved partnership with sa father, who passed away when elle was a teenager, ont well oui the father personnage she found in sa husband, Sid Luft, that produced the film. Garland plays Esther Blodgett, a singer unaware ns her star power until she is discovered par Norman Maine (James Mason), a well-known film actor with année unslakable thirst pour alcohol. Elle transformation indigenous Blodgett to sa studio-assigned persona oui Vicki lester is not tous that tarif removed native Garland’s own transition à celebrity, when she cast off the less-appealing name ns Francis Gumm (vaudeville étoiles George Jessel joked that it sounded like “Glum”). Just ont the romance that blossomed in between Lester and Maine to be doomed pour tragedy périmé to addiction, haricot de soja was Garland’s marriage venir Sid, ont he provided into his compulsion à la gambling.

Vous lisez ce: Histoire du film a star is born

The baggage Garland carried to auto project was dubbed in Luft and Vance’s book oui “a cassant constitution, dependency conditions météorologiques prescription medication, habits of lateness et volatility, et unmanaged manic depression.” how poignant that the very symptoms contributing to thé multiple delays the plagued Cukor’s cinématicien stemmed straight from a medicine regiment enforced de MGM head louis B. Mayer. Believing his new contract joueur to be too overweight, Mayer had studio doctors prescribe Garland Benzedrine combined with a phenobarbital venir suppress her appetite while doubling sa energy. 

Paved with self-serving intentions, this erratic brick road commander directly à Garland’s untimely fatality at lâge 47 ns a barbiturate overdose—whether or not ce was accidental is beside the point. Thé actress’s most notorious alleged suicidaire attempt occurred after MGM suspended her contract, following thé repeated delays elle caused pour 1950’s “Summer Stock,” avec her top song, “Get Happy,” that resulted in the studios losing money. Auto “slashed throat” sensationalized de the press was an easily remedied cut on elle neck that freed Garland native Mayer’s studio, providing elle with thé necessary space venir prepare parce que le the biggest work of sa career.

It to be Cukor, ns course, who must be credited with thé earliest and least well-known iteration ns “A star Is Born,” which additionally happened venir be his first significant directorial effort. 1932’s “What Price Hollywood” centers conditions météorologiques waitress mary Evans (Constance Bennett, porter Grant’s fellow fantôme in “Topper”), a most established heroine through a Hollywood-ready surname who provides a deliberate impressionnant on drunk director, max Carey (owl-eyed Lowell Sherman), while play hard-to-get with Lonny (Neil Hamilton), auto boorish homme who lusts after her. The interesting comment the Oscar-nominated screenplay, based on a story de Adela Rogers St. Johns, splits thé father figure et lover later on embodied by Norman Maine right into two, finishing in Mary’s happy reunion v Lonny after Max’s death. We’re not exactly rooting pour the collègue to be together, due to the fact that their first cétait une date consisted ns Lonny wrecking in her glass door, dragging elle to his house and force-feeding sa caviar. 

William A. Wellman’s unofficial réforme from 1937, the life to carry thé title, “A étoiles Is Born,” is année improvement in many respects, providing auto outline parce que le Cukor’s dépense released 17 years later. Though Moss Hart rewrote the tons half of the 1937 screenplay (which oddly earn the d’oscar for original Story), many stretches in auto second act of auto 1954 picture are nearly word-for-word replicas. That easy à overlook that fact, however, since thé peerless actors assembled by Cukor revitalize their lines through newfound life. One sentimental character from the 1937 cinématique who never spectacles up in subsequent version is Esther’s grandmother, that likens the young woman’s rêves of stardom with thé settlers who conquered auto American wilderness, elevating sa granddaughter’s journey à mythological proportions. In contrast, Cukor’s réforme feels bracingly modern-day in its visceral portrayal of studio-bred dysphoria, signified at thé beginning by the Lynchian buzzing du floodlights et a Scorsese-esque use de epilepsy-inducing flashbulbs. 

Just ont the 1954 “Star Is Born” is better than that is 1937 predecessor, Cooper’s 2018 récompenses contender is a superior dépense of frank Pierson’s 1976 réforme (both were produced passant par Jon Peters), starring Barbra Streisand et Kris Kristofferson. This to be the first picture à take the histoire out of Hollywood and place cette in the musique industry. Gaga’s ally is oui much a nod à Steisand’s Esther Hoffman as she is à Garland’s Blodgett/Lester. Cooper’s pill-popping rock étoiles Jackson Maine speak in a gravely voice evocative ns Kristofferson’s troubled rocker homme Norman Howard—two heartrending alpha male characters whose eyes well up long avant their woman counterparts break down. Streisand search to pause traditional gender roles par having Esther undertake men’s suits, make the tons move passant par proposing marriage and inject thé previously sexless yarn with frank if compelled eroticism. “I think there’s a le meilleur of both worlds, mixing old et new,” sings Esther, thereby justifying thé purpose of a remake, as does Jackson’s long-suffering sibling, bobby (Sam Elliott), when cette recalls how his brother thought that musique was “essentially 12 notes between any kind of octave. 12 notes and the octave repeats. It’s auto same histoire told over and over, forever. Tous any artist deserve to offer thé world is how they check out those 12 notes.”

It’s seulement un appropriate that Gaga is planning to portray Fanny bryce in “Funny Girl” nous Broadway, since that not only happens venir be Streisand’s debut film role—the une that made elle tie with Katharine Hepburn for le meilleur Actress—but cette also highly informed Streisand’s approach à “Star Is Born,” through its an in similar way bittersweet love story. The final long take conditions météorologiques Esther’s face as she performs onstage end in a freeze structure that aims venir burn her visage into the viewer’s minds, just as the last shot du Cooper’s cinématicien does, et the finale of “Funny Girl,” parce que le that matter. John makes a failed early on attempt at having Esther join him onstage, easing her nerves with the promise of “Trust me,” yet in Cooper’s version, ally goes through with it, allowing elle duet with Jackson to be the moment they fall in love. 

Like Streisand et Pierson did, Cooper surrounds himself in thé picture through real industrie figures et close collaborators. Throughout a dialogue with Oliver Platt after thé film’s Chicago premiere, Cooper said he was inspired passant par Elia Kazan’s line, “I don’t audition actors, i take them pour a go around the block.” His se concentrer sur on direction enabled him to deliver his many intuitive performance to date, when his la coopération with Derek Cianfrance on “The carré Beyond thé Pines” motivated him venir utilize immersive longue takes, maintaining the caméra onstage during concert sequences.  

When cette comes to the actual star-making talenz displayed by the heroines in thé many “Star Is Born” versions, the degree of their ability varies conspicuously. We see signification littérale of Mary’s abilities in “What Price Hollywood,” à part from sa on-camera performance ns “Parlez-moi d’amour,” a much more understated precursor à Ally making her grand entrance with “La cru En Rose.” Yet parce que le her initiale audition, Mary lieu de travail tirelessly at nailing her scripted bit of business, rehearsing fine into auto night. Toutes les personnes we comprendre in thé 1937 Wellman cinématicien are a few celebrity impressions delivered passant par waitress Esther (Janet Gaynor), which room unseen by Norman (Frederic March) at thé party where she is supposedly discovered. The most potent emotional peaks of Cukor’s remake are abbreviation here, serving oui a blueprint bereft of the full picture. 

Whereas Garland du sang along à prerecorded tracks, oui per studio tradition, Streisand insisted conditions météorologiques singing live, a technique shared passant par Gaga et Cooper. Je vous demande pardon torpedoes the dramatic impact of thé 1976 cinématique is Streisand’s own ego, which removes any trace ns Esther’s vulnerability, leaving sa with no tangible arc—she’s essentially a star from auto get-go. Passant par stripping herself physically et emotionally of her pop étoiles persona, Gaga succeeds in making the public feel a sense ns discovery as soon as Ally steps into the spotlight. In plenty of ways, this performance is thé fulfillment du Gaga’s very own anthem ns personal empowerment, “Born This Way.”

From the very beginning, “A étoiles Is Born” carried echoes of Garland, oui if foreshadowing elle eventual cinématique that would sommet them all. Cukor want to direct Garland ever before since cette saw sa sing “Happy Birthday” to Ethel Barrymore at his home, just oui Cooper got thé idea à cast Gaga when he witnessed her performance ns “La ailé En Rose” at a charity benefit. Auto opening scene ns Cukor’s “What Price Hollywood,” whereby Mary flirts through a picture du Clark Gable, is mirrored by Garland’s second feature cinématique appearance in “Broadway Melody ns 1938,” where elle sings “You fabriqué Me love You” to elle own snapshot de Gable (embedded above). 

Clara Blandick, that went conditions météorologiques to receive cinematic immortality oui Auntie em in “The Wizard of Oz,” plays auto disapproving aunt de Gaynor’s Esther in Wellman’s “Star Is Born,” discouraging her niece from her technicolor rêver in Tinseltown (and when elle finally come there, the colors pop seulement like they aller in Oz). Three years after donning Dorothy’s pigtails, Garland plot in a Lux radio Theatre non-musical fabrication of “Star Is Born” the opposite Walter Pidgeon, et two decades later, would invite Streisand ont a invité on sa television show. When auto 1976 “Star Is Born” was initially pitched passant par James Taylor and Carly Simon, it was called “Rainbow Road,” a location echoing the aforementioned prelude to “Over auto Rainbow.”

What provides this story such a valuable one to retell every generation jaune so is its timeless dexploration of a dehumanizing entreprises designed to admirées talent, allow addictions et snuff the end those that pouvez endanger that profits. Looked at toutes les personnes together, these five film serve ont “evergreen” temps capsules, venir borrow auto name de Streisand’s Oscar-winning tune she sings masterfully in une unbroken take it while flirting v Kristofferson (Gaga will most likely win thé same d’oscar for “Shallow”). Even in 1932, the idea du a director meeting a woman and wanting venir put elle in des photos is dismissed oui “the exact same old story.” Wellman’s clever choice to bookend his cinématique with pages de the script accentuate the preordained la nature of the piece. 

Binding toutes les personnes these versions together is a single line of conversation that serves oui the older masculine farewell à his jeune discovery. In “What Price Hollywood,” cette is uttered only once, when max calls out to Mary, seul to reply, “I just wanted à hear amie speak again, it is all.” In auto subsequent remakes, the line ended up being a request pour Norman venir take “one an ext look” at Esther. This exchange occurs earlier in the cinématique so the its shipment toward thé end will have more emotional heft. In auto 1976 film, the song, “With une More look at at You,” coauthored de Paul Williams, pays homage venir this line, intertwining cette with John’s autographiés tune, “Watch closely Now.”

As parce que le the suicidaire sequence that typically follows this line, cette is handled more jaune less identically in the 1937 and 1954 versions, with normand walking into the ocean, despite Cukor’s film makes it tous the much more chilling by accompanying his fatality with Garland’s tender rendition of “It’s a new World.” seul two years after “Singin’ in the Rain” opened in theaters, Mason’s self-inflicted demise provides a stark comparison with Gene Kelly’s rebellious splashing v puddles, conveying his refusal to let thé changing conditions—both in thé weather et the film industry—dampen his spirits. In the des boites of “Star Is Born,” thé tides de change cannot be combated by our hero, he can seulement un be engulfed by them (Mason likewise references the Kelly film de claiming he’s “fit oui a fiddle et ready pour love”). 

Yet the suicide of max in “What Price Hollywood” (embedded above) is even an ext memorable, preceding auto fatal gunshot with images of the man’s first flashing antérieur à his eyes, a brilliant visuel flourish for 1932. After Kristofferson cd driver recklessly right into oblivion while listening venir his wife conditions météorologiques the radio, Streisand has her most genuinely poignant scene when she encounters his lifeless body, clinging à it oui if cette were toujours alive. Cooper’s limply hanging corpse have the right to barely be glimpsed through thé window of his garage, et his fate is foreshadowed v equal subtlety after his very life performance in auto film, when image of nooses appear conditions météorologiques a panneau daffichage outside auto window du his limo.

Driving the homme to his death isn’t seul his addiction, but the renforcer in his industry et the greater culture that fail to treat him like a human being. In 1932, the scariest antagonist is the auditeur itself, which attacks Mary after sa wedding, tearing at her clothing with thé zeal ns ravenous zombies. Non wonder Esther et Norman opted for a private ceremony in the 1937 and 1954 versions, lot to auto chagrin du Libby, a push agent that emerges as the chef villain de the story. Cette has everything to gagner from Norman’s death, city hall Esther ont the studio’s “hottest piece du property” that must be safeguarded at toutes les personnes costs. His contemptuous treatment of normand is a blatant attempt to périple the damaged man over the edge. 

In these deux films, thé veil-ripping scene to be moved to Norman’s funeral, intensifying thé brutality ns the mob’s violation. Auto 1976 retravailler, recommencez-vous splits thé villain in two, occurring as an assistant (Gary Busey) that shoves drugs right into Kristofferson’s nostrils, and a vile DJ (M.G. Kelly), who provokes fights with the rocker, seulement un to prayer him once his life has expired. Cooper’s film offers its own spin on the Libby archetype with Ally’s manager, Rez (Rafi Gavron), année insufferable jerk responsible pour Jackson’s final deterioration de convincing auto broken addict that cette has no en vigueur with his wife. Lot funnier is auto pre-Hedda Hopper gossip columnist in “What Price Hollywood” tasked through asking cheerfully invasive questions ns Mary and Lonny. When elle requests a photo of his sculpted physique, cette offers sa his appendix in a jar avant storming out de the pièce (“Has cette gone to get it?” elle asks).

Cukor’s déditions of “A étoiles is Born” encore proves impossible to equal mostly because of Garland herself, whose performance is one du the greatest ever committed venir celluloid. Whereas the 1976 et 2018 remakes culminate in a cathartic musique number, this cinématique offers non such release, making the sense of loss tous the much more palpable. As well as her chœurs of “It’s a new World,” sung off-camera, Vicki Lester’s last song in the film takes place at the top du the critique act: Harold Arlen and Ira Gershwin’s “Lose That longue Face.” It’s année exuberantly high-spirited number, with Garland performing in a hairdo resembling that of sa daughter, Liza Minnelli, in later years. When the director yells cut, lester retreats to sa makeup trailer and delivers a searing monologue unmatched by any sequence in every différent iteration of the story. 

Still clad in theatrical makeup, Lester’s larger-than-life persona dissolves entirely as she speaks candidly with studio head Oliver (Charles Bickford). “You don’t sait what the like to watch somebody you love just crumble away, bit by bit, day de day, in front du your eyes et stand over there helpless,” lester cries, echoing thé feelings of Garland’s numerous admirers. “Love isn"t enough pour him. Et I"m afraid ns what"s beginning à happen within je because...sometimes I hate him. I hâte his promises à stop et then thé watching and waiting à see ce begin again. I se presser to go home venir him at night et listen venir his lies. Ma heart goes out to him because cette tries—he walk try. Marqué I hâte him for failing. Et I hate me, too. I hate me raison I"ve failed, too. I have. Je don"t savoir what"s going to happen to us, Oliver. Non matter comment much you amour somebody...how faire you live out the days?”

Laying elle soul bare, Garland articulates thé plight of a caregiver and an addict v such raw agony that ce transcends the arts form ns acting and registers nous a level the is inescapably real. “Moss Hart taken when hey wrote that sequence the Mama to be both normand Maine and Vicki Lester, that she would be speak of sa own failures et drug dependency,” write Luft in her book. “Mama to be making a movie around addiction, marqué the personalities were reversed.” wiping away elle tears, lester hurries out the door, hits sa mark et belts out the final lines of “Lose That longue Face,” all the while keeping a beaming expression. Garland’s entire tons is encapsulated in this sequence—the countless days de cheering strangers while harboring private pain—and ce remains one ns the most powerful stretches of cinema ever conceived. 

It additionally echoes how Cooper attempted venir “capture reputation sonically” in his film, cutting from loudness venir nothingness et back again. Un autre story from the fabrication recounted de Luft arisen during the filming ns Lester’s wrecking breakdown. “You really scared the hell out du me,” Cukor exclaimed, venir which Garland quipped, “Oh, it is nothing. Come end to mien house. I do it every afternoon—but ns only faire it once at home.” This exchange to be later incorporated into Roger allan Ackerman’s frais 2001 television ajustement of Luft’s memoir, Me et My Shadows, starring Judy Davis in an astonishing performance worthy of Garland herself. The le meilleur sequence re-stages elle Carnegie hall concert, année event Ackerman was existing for, where the overture fittingly join “The homme That gained Away” v “Over thé Rainbow.”

Hollywood’s history de awarding itself would naturally make Cukor’s “A étoiles Is Born” appear to be a shoo-in parce que le a full-on sweep at the académie Awards. After all, auto organization’s very own accolade had always been featured prominently in the plot, even back when it was referred venir as an “Academy medal” in “What Price Hollywood.” Wellman definitely knew a thing jaune two about Oscars, considering his 1927 cinématique “Wings” to be the tons to win best Picture, while Gaynor was the life performer to be named meilleur Actress. Had actually Garland winner the award for “Star Is Born,” it would’ve served oui the ultimate validation from an industry pour which elle had sacrificed haricot de soja much. After all, ont the le meilleur Actor winner in the cinématique notes, winning an Oscar “is an ample price for année entire career.” 

It’s one de the great ironies ns Garland’s sapin that elle could hold an adult-sized Oscar—unlike thé juvenile minatle she to be presented pour “Wizard du Oz”—only after the académie loaned une out to Cukor, as detailed in thé opening credits. Though auto 1954 “A étoiles Is Born” deserve six oscar nominations, ce was nowhere à be uncovered in multiple critical categories, namely best Picture, le meilleur Director and Best Screenplay. Not seul did Garland lose to Grace Kelly parce que le “The country Girl” (who also played auto wife of année alcoholic actor), cible “The masculin That acquired Away” lost in the best Original souper category à “Three maïs in a Fountain,” the forgotten vous ne faites pas Steve vigne gets ridiculed parce que le singing in “Planes, former & Automobiles.” the fact “Star Is Born” left thé 1955 oscar ceremony empty-handed registered as a slap in the visage to Garland, and unlike the one accidentally administered passant par Norman Maine, ce was not at toutes les personnes backhanded.

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The rapturous response that the cinématique earned at that is splashy los Angeles premiere to be a mirage of “La ns Land” proportions. Cette promised quel ultimately couldn’t be delivered, a major comeback fueled by récompenses season glory. Despite thé acclaim earned passant par Cukor’s 181-minute déditions of thé film, Harry chaleureux insisted that the picture it is in cut de a half-hour, saying that cette was also long—after all, it was auto most high value movie shoot in Hollywood, yet the rerelease de “Gone With auto Wind” was still raking in gros money at the des boites office. Without the consultations of Cukor, warner senselessly chopped the picture down venir 154 minutes, rendering the histoire incoherent while removing many du the meilleur scenes, such ont the enregistrer session parce que le “Here’s what I’m here For” followed by Norman’s marriage proposal, and most criminal de all, the “Lose That longue Face” number. 

Since chaleureux didn’t bother retaining a simple print of the original cut, Ronald Haver’s 1983 repair was forced to juxtapose film stills through surviving audio in order to recreate auto 20 minutes of footage the were permanently lost. Though these sequences are initially jarring, they enhance the narrative immeasurably, if lending nouveau layers du depth to Esther et Norman’s relationship. Auto amusing bit where a woman lashes out at normand after he refuses to délocalité for a picture is evocative du a similar moment in Scorsese’s “The king of Comedy,” when one de Jerry Lewis’ disgruntled fans shouts, “I hope you get cancer!” Garland never lived venir see this enhanced version, having passed away in 1969, et Cukor died seulement two job prior venir his booked screening du the restoration.

If Cooper’s film proves anything, that that the story ns “A étoiles Is Born” will eternally be precious “one more look,” though non successful refaire can exist without gift at least somewhat indebted to Cukor’s version. Gaga is an ideal choice to follow in Garland’s footsteps, in part because both women room icons ns the LGBT community. Thé Stonewall uprising that emerged a day after Garland’s funeral in new York city may likely oui inspired gilbert Baker à select Dorothy’s cherished rainbow ont the defining symbol of his corrébration pride flag. Couple of singers ont ever tackled the difficulty of living one’s rêves with oui much resonance ont Garland, a design template that continu to connect with everyone shamed out ns being v the one they love. 

Garland’s conviction to song “The masculin That got Away” with operatic passion led vocal arranger Hugh vigne to bolt from auto set, cible she to be entirely exactement in sa choice, knowing totally well the this num foreshadowed auto turbulent emotion elle would later deliver sans music in auto makeup trailer. The songs in Cooper’s picture périple the narrative just ont much as they aller in Cukor’s version, with “La ailé En Rose” serving auto same function oui “The homme That gained Away” by wowing Maine (and auto audience) with thé singer’s stunning talent. As soon as Cooper life meets Gaga backstage and offers à help take it off sa false eyebrows, the instants is année homage to perhaps the most meaningful scene of toutes les personnes in thé 1954 film.

Ally’s self-consciousness about thé size of elle nose reminds us de the humiliating studio examination endured de Lester, who is educated that elle “nose is the problem.” After she was hired par MGM, rubber discs were placed into Garland’s sleep in order à la it to be reshaped so that she could be considered camera-ready. Art continues venir imitate sapin in the Cukor film, once Maine finds leicester post-makeover, caked in makeup and decked the end in a ridiculous blonde wig. He insists that elle remove all trace du artifice from elle features before gazing at elle reflection in thé mirror. This is auto greatest giv that Maine bestows to her—the currently that elle beauty shines through only when she’s true à herself. à paraphrase Gaga’s many popular song from the 2018 film, she’s frais from the shallow now. 

Lester goes nous to success over audiences in her sapin major screen duty represented de the “Born in a Trunk” medley, a show-stopping sequence similar to “Broadway Melody” in “Singin’ in thé Rain,” yet tarif more tied to the central narrative. Ce gives Lester et Garland auto opportunity à weave aspects ns their own backstories into their artistry, proving that auto more personal one’s work-related is, the more cette is bound to connect v others. Gaga believes the Ally doesn’t truly come to be a star until thé last frame du the film, after elle reclaims elle identity de ceasing venir dye her brun hair red (her directeur originally suggested “platinum”). Would Garland ont ever come to be a étoiles had Cukor encouraged elle on the “Wizard of Oz” collection to à faire away with thé blonde wig she was ordered venir wear during display screen tests? Why stroked nerves altering what was currently sublime? Baby, elle was bondir this way. 

Lorna Luft and Jeffrey Vance’s book, A étoiles Is Born: Judy Garland and the film that gained Away, is available pour purchase on Amazon, as is auto Blu-ray edition de George Cukor’s restored “A étoiles Is Born.” 

“The Wizard of Oz” returns to the big screen courtesy of Fathom Events on Sunday, January 27th; Tuesday, January 29th; et Wednesday, January 30th in le respect of that is 80th anniversary.

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Matt Fagerholm

Matt Fagerholm is année Assistant Editor at hearyoutube.com et is a member de the Chicago cinématique Critics Association.